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Sectarian violence unleashed after the US disintegration of Iraq is linked to the Syrian conflict and the death toll will only climb since extremist elements hijacked the sectarian instability in the region.
For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, saith the Lord.
May 21, 2013
“The subject of weather and climate control is now becoming respectable to talk about.” So began Harry Wexler in his speech “On the Possibilities of Climate Control,” given in early 1962 to technical audiences in Boston, Hartford, and Los Angeles.[i]
Wexler, who studied meteorology at MIT and served as Chief of Scientific Services at the US Weather Bureau, supported his claim by citing, among others, President John F. Kennedy’s recent speech at the United Nations proposing, “cooperative efforts between all nations in weather prediction and eventually in weather control” and the State Department’s urging of “early and comprehensive study in the light of developments in outer space of the possibility of large-scale weather modification.”[ii]
Wexler assured his audiences that he was concerned not with the long and checkered history of cloud modification leading to more-or-less localized precipitation influences, but with planetary-scale manipulation of the Earth’s shortwave and longwave radiation budget that would result in “rather large-scale effects on general circulation patterns in short or longer periods, even approaching that of climatic change.”[iii]
These effects, details later, included increasing world temperature by several degrees by detonating up to ten H-bombs in the Arctic Ocean; decreasing world temperature by launching powder into an equatorial orbit to shade the Earth and make it look somewhat like Saturn and its rings; and notably, destroying all stratospheric ozone above the Arctic circle using a relatively small amount of a catalytic agent such as chlorine or bromine.
Wexler was interested in both inadvertent climate modification, such as might be created by rocket exhaust gases or other pollution, and purposeful effects, whether peaceful or hostile.
So remember it was Wexler, about 50 years ago, who first claimed climate control was “respectable.”[iv] The stratospheric ozone story is also very significant, given that the received history of ozone depletion dates only to the 1970s and certainly does not include Wexler’s role.
Recently, I have been in correspondence with three notable ozone scientists about Wexler’s early work: Nobel Laureates Sherwood Rowland, Paul Crutzen, and National Academy of Sciences President Ralph Cicerone. They are uniformly interested and quite amazed by this story.
Let me speak first about Wexler’s credibility. Harry Wexler (1911-1962) was one of the most influential meteorologists of the mid-twentieth century. He was a graduate of Harvard and MIT, a student of C.G. Rossby (slide 2) a proponent of air mass and frontal analysis (slide 3), and Chief of the Scientific Services Division of the U.S. Weather Bureau during an era that saw the introduction of regular radiosonde ascents (slide 4), weather radar (slide 5), atmospheric atomic testing and global fallout tracing (slide 6), scientific sounding rockets (slide 7), and both NWP and GCMs (slide 8) Here is Wexler with Von Neumann, Charney, and others associated with the Institute for Advanced Study meteorology program at Princeton.
Wexler was a pioneer in satellite meteorology (slide 9). He was in charge of the TIROS program and helped Verner Suomi fly his first heat budget experiment on Explorer 7.
Wexler was head of US Antarctic programs for the International Geophysical Year (slide 10), established the Mauna Loa Observatory and supported Dave Keeling’s measurements of CO2 (slide 11), wrote on peaceful use of satellites and weather control for JFK (slides 12, 13), and planned the World Weather Watch (slide 14) which became a reality in 1963, the year after his sudden death at the age of 51. Wexler was clearly on top of his science, a leader in new techniques and technologies, and a respected international figure.
Wexler on the possibilities of ozone depletion and climate control In his 1962 speeches on climate control,[v] Wexler discussed increasing pollution both from industry and from the use of sounding rockets, and recent developments in science, including computing and satellites, that led him to believe that manipulating and controlling large-scale phenomena in the atmosphere were distinct possibilities.
Wexler mentioned rising carbon dioxide emissions as an example and cited a 1961 study by the Geophysics Corporation of America on modification of the Earth’s upper atmosphere by rockets (slide 15).
At the birth of modern computing in 1945, Dr. V.K. Zworykin, then at the RCA Laboratories in Princeton imagined a perfectly accurate machine that would predict the immediate future state of the atmosphere and identify the precise time and location of leverage points or sensitive conditions so that a paramilitary rapid deployment force might be sent out into the field to intervene in the weather as it happens—literally to pour oil on troubled ocean waters or even set fires or detonate bombs to disrupt storms before they formed, deflect them from populated areas, and otherwise control the weather.
According to Zworykin:
The eventual goal to be attained is the international organization of means to study weather phenomena as global phenomena and to channel the world’s weather, as far as possible, in such a way as to minimize the damage from catastrophic disturbances, and otherwise to benefit the world to the greatest extent by improved climatic conditions where possible.
John von Neumann, the multi-talented mathematician extraordinaire at the Institute for Advanced Study agreed, writing, “All stable processes we shall predict. All unstable processes we shall control.” The noted oceanographer Athelstan Spilhaus, then a U.S. Army major, wrote to Zworykin, “In weather control, meteorology has a new goal worthy of its greatest efforts.”
All this was cited by Wexler in his speech.
While acknowledging growing technical prowess and scientific capabilities, including 100 MT bombs and earth-orbiting satellites, Wexler noted “a growing anxiety” in the public pronouncements that “Man, in applying his growing energies and facilities against the power of the winds and storms, may do so with more enthusiasm than knowledge and so cause more harm than good.”[vi]
Wexler did not intend to cover all possibilities “but just a few… limited primarily to interferences with the Earth’s radiative balance on a rather large scale [original emphasis]…. I shall discuss in a purely hypothetical framework those atmospheric influences that man might attempt deliberately to exert and also those which he may now be performing or will soon be performing, perhaps in ignorance of its consequences. We are in weather control now whether we know it or not.”
“We have for decades been releasing huge quantities of carbon dioxide and other gases and particles to the lower atmosphere. It is recognized that this atmospheric pollution may have serious effect not only on health but on global radiation or heat balance which is the cause of our present pattern of climate and weather.”[vii]
Then Wexler showed some 20 technical slides of the atmosphere’s radiative heat budget and discussed means of manipulating it. He concluded with this figure (slide 16) a grand summary of various techniques. The table lists a means of (a) increasing global temperature by 1.7 C by injecting a cloud of ice crystals into the polar atmosphere by detonating 10 H-bombs in the Arctic Ocean—the subject of his 1958 article in Science magazine; [viii] (b) lowering global temperature by 1.2 C by launching a ring of dust particles into equatorial orbit, a modification of an earlier Russian proposal to warm the Arctic, and (c) destroying all stratospheric ozone, raising the tropopause, and cooling the stratosphere by up to 80 oC by an injection of a catalytic agent such as Chlorine or Bromine.
The revisions in pencil show his newly lowered estimates of the amounts of material required. For example, that 0.1 MT of bromine would destroy all ozone in Polar regions and 0.4 MT would be needed near the equator.
Wexler was concerned (slide 17) that inadvertent damage to the ozone layer might occur if increased rocket exhaust polluted the stratosphere. He was also concerned that future near-space experiments could go awry, citing Operation Argus (nuclear blasts in near space, 1958), Project West Ford (a ring of small copper dipole antennas in orbit, 1961), and Project Highwater (ice crystals injected into the ionosphere, 1962) as recent significant interventions with unknown risks.
Purposeful damage was also not out of the question. In 1934 the noted geophysicist Sydney Chapman had proposed making a temporary “hole in the ozone layer” using a yet-to-be-identified catalytic “deozonizer.” According to Chapman, a small hole cut at a remote location might enable astronomers to make observations at ultra-violet wavelengths where radiation was otherwise absorbed by ozone.
Much more sinister and relevant to the Cold War was possible military interest in waging geophysical warfare by attacking the ozone layer over a rival nation. Seeking advice on how to cut a “hole” in the ozone layer, Wexler turned to chemist Oliver Wulf at Caltech who suggested that chlorine or bromine atoms might act in a catalytic cycle with atomic oxygen to destroy thousands of ozone molecules.
In a hand-written note composed in January 1962 Wexler scrawled the following (slide 18): “UV decomposes O3 –> O in presence of halogen like Br. O –> O2 recombines and so prevents more O3 from forming; and (slide 19) “Br2 –> 2 Br in sunlight destroys O3 –> O2 + BrO.” These are essentially the basis of the modern ozone depleting chemical reactions. Here (slide 20) is Wexler’s computation, using Manabe and Möller’s model of an 80 oC stratospheric cooling with no ozone layer.
Wexler concluded that he was not making proposals to intervene, but was involved in studying the basic equations and engineering aspects of general circulation research, including the natural behavior of the atmosphere, unintentional effects, and aspects of particular interest to the DoD. A final example of documentation in the archives—a sort of ozone depletion Rosetta stone—is Wexler’s rough note of 1962 that links Chapman 1934, Wulf, rocket fuel and ozone destroying reactions triggered by chorine and bromine as catalysts (slide 21). Under normal circumstances, Wexler would have prepared his lecture for publication, but he was cut down by a sudden heart attack in August 1962.
The documents relating to his career, especially his remarkable work on ozone depletion and climate control headed into the archives, probably not to be seen and certainly not to be re-evaluated until today. The well-known and well-documented Supersonic Transport (SST) and ozone depletion issues developed about a decade later. The idea that bromine and other halogens could destroy stratospheric ozone was published in 1974, while CFC production expanded rapidly and dramatically between 1962 and its peak in 1974.
Had Wexler lived to publish his ideas, they would certainly have been noticed and could have led to a different outcome and perhaps an earlier coordinated response to the issue of stratospheric ozone depletion. And the issue of a technological fix for climate change—geoengineering—remains very much alive today. Conclusion It is clear that Harry Wexler was well-qualified to speak authoritatively about the otherwise “nebulous” subjects of climate, climate change, and climate control.
He was on all the scientific panels and advisory boards, had access to and helped collect global climate data, understood the theoretical issues and their complexity, and promoted and advanced the latest technologies, most relevantly general circulation modeling and satellite heat budget measurements. He warned then, and we might wisely conclude today, that (slide 22): “[Climate control] can best be classified as ‘interesting hypothetical exercises’ until the consequences of tampering with large scale atmospheric events can be assessed in advance.
Most such schemes that have been advanced would require colossal engineering feats and contain the inherent risk of irremediable harm to our planet or side effects counterbalancing the possible short-term benefits.”[ix] Wexler’s prescient work between 1958 and 1962 “On the Possibilities of Climate Control” reminds us that we are not the first generation to be involved with or concerned about geoengineering.
The post German V-2 Rocket Inspired Climate Geoengineering and Weather Control appeared first on Intellihub.com.
Whenever you walk into a Cracker Barrel Old Country Store restaurant, the first thing you’ll run into is their “Made in USA” display of all American-made products. And when I say it’s the first thing you’ll “run into” I mean that literally, because once you pass through the entrance doors, if you keep going straight, you will actually run right into this display of all American-made products.
Part of the motivation behind Cracker Barrel’s decision to have a made-in-USA-only section in its Old Country Store was because consumers and patrons kept “running into” souvenirs, gifts, trinkets, keepsakes, and knick-knacks made in other countries, and they made sure the management knew they were unhappy about it.
Among the store managers I talked to, the consensus was that the company simply felt it just wasn’t right to offer so many products with the American flag, or other American symbols on them, that weren’t made in America. And I’m pretty sure that most conscientious and concerned Americans would agree. I know that I do!
Browsing through the patriotic-theme products of Cracker Barrel’s Old Country Store, patriotic Americans can’t help but get the feeling they’ve walking into the right place. And if they’re Americans who express their patriotism through their consumer purchases, Americans who like to vote with their wallets, checkbooks and credit cards everyday not just on Election Day, then Cracker Barrel’s Old Country Store really is a dream come true.
Among the terrific variety of patriotic-theme products Cracker Barrel carries in their “Made in USA” section, you’ll find:
You can also shop online at www.crackerbarrel.com, where the American-made items in the Patriotic Collection part of the online store are noted by clicking the Details tab when the product you are interested in is displayed.
If you’re sitting on their front porch, relaxing while rocking in the Official Military Rockers that line the restaurant’s gracious porch, you’ll notice that even they are made in USA (other rocking chairs on the porch are assembled in USA, which means they can contain parts that are not from domestic sources).
In many ways, Cracker Barrel’s business really is synonymous with tried-and-true American values. Whether it’s treating people fairly, with dignity and mutual respect, encouraging those with the drive and talent to succeed, or giving people a fair deal at a fair price, sticking to values like these has rewarded the company with the praise and loyalty of guests. Not only do they crave their home-style cooking while dining out close to home, or traveling throughout America, they also appreciate knowing that when they stop in at one of Cracker Barrel’s 600 restaurants, the experience will be, without a doubt, a positive one.
The folks at Cracker Barrel also believe that they have an obligation to operate in a culture of mutual respect in the communities where they do business. Through their Cracker Barrel Foundation, they provide support for specific community relations efforts, like their in-school Rockin’ Reader® program, Employee Resource Groups, and employee diversity education programs.
And of course, their values are now reflected in the products they offer from truly American vendors. These vendors are pleased to have the opportunity to offer their American-made products in Cracker Barrel’s Old Country Store. If you’re a Buy American advocate, one form of mutual respect is surely worth noting: an all-American business – Cracker Barrel, selling American-made products to support other American businesses, which helps to keep Americans employed and the engine of our national prosperity churning.
This kind of reciprocal and mutual relationship is one thing that’s great about the way America is moving today, because it benefits all Americans, it’s keeping jobs, taxes, and profits within our national borders, and it’s what’s helping us continue to build a strong and proud nation.
Economist, columnist, radio host and international conference speaker Jerry Robinson uses his “Follow the Money Weekly” program this week to interview Pastor Mark Biltz from El Shaddai Ministries in Washington state.
Biltz has been researching the Hebrew roots of Christianity for several years and has stumbled across an amazing discovery. According to the NASA website, four total lunar eclipses are scheduled to occur on the Jewish Feast of Tabernacles and on Passover in 2014 and 2015.
He explains similar events occurred in 1492, when Catholic Spain expelled the Jews, in 1948 when the nation of Israel was established and in 1967 when the Six-Day War happened and the Jewish nation regained control of Jerusalem.
According to Biltz, the four back-to-back lunar eclipses occurring on Jewish Feast Days in 2014-2015 signify important events for the nation of Israel – and even the global economy.
Also on this week’s program, Robinson addresses the comments from some economists who now are saying that the U.S. is facing disinflation – a general decrease in the existing inflation rate.
He dissects the week’s important economic and financial news including the latest PPI and CPI figures for April.
And he explains why disinflation is important and how investors should be preparing for the Federal Reserve’s eventual exit strategy from its massive quantitative easing program.
Robinson also talks about the seven favorite stocks for the next 30 days, five major trends on which to claim a profit this decade and what technical analysis is needed for active stock trading.
Tom Cloud then joins the program to discuss the economy, including the gold and silver markets, following gold’s decline by 7 percent in just the past few weeks.
Then Jay Peroni, CFP, joins the podcast with this week’s investing idea.
Podcast is 1:18:48.
Jerry Robinson is an economist, published author, columnist, radio talk show host, and international conference speaker. Robinson has been quoted as an economic authority by USA Today, FoxNews and many other news agencies. His columns have appeared regularly in numerous print and web publications, including WND. In addition, Robinson is also the editor-in-chief of the popular economic newsletter, “Follow the Money Quarterly.”
(THE HILL) The Senate Judiciary Committee voted with a strong bipartisan majority Tuesday evening to advance comprehensive immigration legislation that would put 11 million illegal immigrants on a path to citizenship.
The legislation raises caps on high-skilled workers and creates a new visa program for low-skilled workers.
It would allocate billions of dollars to securing the Southwestern border and tracking visas at airports and seaports around the country. It would make E-Verify mandatory for employers across the country to crack down on illegal workers and deter future waves of illegal immigration.
Here’s a list of news media members who have been under Washington’s watch:
The names of the victims have started trickling out. One of the students who drowned at Plaza Towers Elementary School in Moore, Okla., when an EF5 tornado – the worst that can be measured – struck Monday was identified by family members as Janae Hornsby, 9.
Many of the other victims – there were an estimated 24 fatalities – have been identified but their names not yet released publicly as families are contacted, even as authorities promise to triple-search all of the flattened homes, businesses and schools to make sure no survivor is unhelped or casualty unrecovered.
An estimated 230 people were injured as the storm, which tore a path of destruction two miles wide at some points, moved through the suburb of Oklahoma City. It was on the ground for about 17 miles – and 45 minutes.
Oklahoma Gov. Mary Fallin promised all the help government could offer to the victims and expressed her own grief, “Our hearts are broken for the parents that are wondering about the state of their children that had been in the schools that have been hit.”
The National Guard was on scene helping and federal emergency management officials were directly streams of aid to victims.
At least one family tried to seek shelter inside a freezer as the storm destroyed their neighborhood, and did not survive, authorities said. And the children who died at the school reportedly were trapped underneath debris and were drowned by water from burst pipes.
Oklahoma City Medical Examiner’s Office spokeswoman Amy Elliott said it is possible yet more bodies will be found.
Power was out for tens of thousands and occasional flames erupted from leaking gas lines. Jackhammers, construction equipment – and human hands – cleared away debris in search of those hit.
A student, Damien Kline, was on the “Today” show explaining how he owes his life to his teacher, Rhonda Crosswhite.
“A teacher took cover of us, Miss Crosswhite. She was covering me and my friend Zachary. … Then she went over to my friend, Antonio, and covered him, so she saved our lives.”
Flattened were Plaza Towers and Briarwood Elementary Schools, but all students from Briarwood were accounted for.
The images are nothing short of horrific. What used to be homes now appearing in aerial photographs like neatly lined individual piles of rubble. Rescuers pulling children from underneath the wreckage of their school. A single wall of a home, still standing. Quilts and a football helmet crowning piles of splintered walls. What appears to have been a barn, now sitting on top of a car. Piles of crushed cars.
The storm track took the tornado only a few hundred yards away from where a 1999 tornado struck with wind velocities surpassing 300 mph. Another tornado hit nearby in 2003.
See footage of the storm:
The National Guard looks for survivors:
Before and after images:
The schools that were destroyed:
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